In general what is the purpose of a project evaluation?
The evaluation measures the project’s efficiency in meeting both the budget and the schedule as well as the scope, technical and operational specifications, needs of the sponsor, level of commercial success and market share, yields, cycling times, processing steps, quality, and future potential. Another primary purpose of the project evaluation is to help translate the achievement of the project’s goals into a contribution to the parent’s goals.
When preparing an audit report what limits the amount of detail that can be presented in the final report? Why?
Time and money are two of the most common limits to the amount of an audit report’s detail. There are costs associated with the audit process over and above the usual costs of the professional and clerical time used in conducting the audit. Accumulation, storage, and maintenance of auditable data are important cost elements. It is also logical to vary the depth of investigation depending on circumstances and needs unique to each project.
Due Diligence in the legal meaning refers to what with respect to project closeout?
It requires the organization proposing a project to conduct a reasonable, disclosure that is understandable of every material fact relevant to the firm’s ability to conduct the project, and to omit nothing where such omission might ethically mislead the client. The firm should ensure it has legal competent to aid it in meeting this responsibility. The project closure manager ensures the project is accomplished and the client accepts it.
List some potential benefits that could be applied to ongoing and future projects and/or the company’s goals/objectives from the recommendations obtained from a project’s evaluation.
Identify problems earlier, Improve project performance, Locate opportunities for future technological advances, Reduce costs, Improve the process of risk identification and management, Speed up achievement of results, Provide information to the client
When a project is terminated “by addition” what happens to the current project’s assets?
Project personnel, property, and equipment are transferred from the dying project to the newly born division. The metamorphosis from project to department, to division, and even to subsidiary is accompanied by budgets and administrative practices that conform to standard procedure in the parent firm, by demands for contribution profits. It is not uncommon, however, for some of the team members to request transfers to other projects or to seek the change to start new projects.
What should the Termination Manager ensure prior to the termination of a project with regard to the project’s deliverables and the client?
The termination manager’s duty is to ensure that the work is completed (including the work assigned to subcontractors), the final report is cleared with all the deliverables achieved and the completion of all project milestones is communicated to the client. The termination manager must ensure that the documentation is accepted by the client which legally clears the obligations of the project team.
Given the following characteristics of a project, briefly describe the importance of each as they apply to the project:
Provides the project team with the direction to do the project. Without purpose/ objective the project path or aim will not be clear to the team and they may stray from the requirements of the projects.
ii. Lifecycle/time frame:
The lifecycle allows the team to measure whether or not the project is ahead or behind schedule. It is the time allotted for a project to be completed and delays will lead to financial costs. Timeframes also allow resources to be efficiently managed.
Interdependencies mean a task is dependent on the completion of other tasks. Interdependencies are the resources and capabilities which are dependent on each other for completion of projects. When the resources are freed up, then the proximal task can start. Interdependencies allow tasks to be conducted in a parallel manner and provides efficient use of resources.
Project uniqueness is the attributes of project which makes the project different from other projects. These characteristics include deliverables, timelines, activities, resources etc. Project uniqueness provides unique solutions to address challenges. When competing against other bidders, uniqueness is useful to show how a project manager offers a service that other competitors do not have.
Understanding sources of conflict enables a project manager to be proactive and enjoy the art of resolution. A conflict occurs when the project manager takes a risk and processes or outcomes do not result as planned. To bring further complications, conflict can arise when the project manager needs to satisfy multiple stakeholders and multiple teams with differing opinions. Overall, understanding needs of all and keeping communication lines open are safe strategies to minimize conflict.
The customer provides the project idea and funding. Gaining the customer’s approval during the bidding stage is the purpose of developing a winning strategy. The project plan contains contractual agreement between the customer and the firm. The customer’s approval in terms of achievement of key milestones is necessary for project sign-off.
Resources are the assets or tools required to carry out the project activities and tasks. These include manpower, instruments, funds, facilities, utilities etc. Resources, if allocated efficiently, can reduce costs. Improper use of resources can delay a project or decrease project quality.
List at least 10 advantages and 10 disadvantages for each of a weak matrix organization and a pure project organization:
Weak Matrix Organization Structure:
Advantages: Overall responsiveness of employees is enhanced, Better communication lines get established in the organization, Employees get more autonomy and empowerment in the company, Overall motivation of employees increases, Quality of work is better, Matrix utilization facilitates effective utilization of resources, Career development and enhancement of employees gets facilitated, There is better clarity among employees about the allotted work and responsibility, Flow of information across the organization is better, Project objectives get aligned with the functional objectives of the company
Disadvantages: The dual reporting may result in redundancy and can be time consuming, The dual reporting can be pressurizing on the employees, Overall complexity of the organization may get enhanced, There can be higher amount of conflicts in the organization, The dual reporting may lead to authority confusion among the employees and managers, The complexity of dual reporting may impact the effectiveness of employees, Overhead costs of company may increase, The employees and managers may lack cooperation, There is high probability of a structural collapse in matrix structure, A panic mode may get created in organization in crunch situations
Project Organization Structure:
Advantages: Employees feel inclusive and valued in the company, Overall employee morale is high, Very easy to create, Team or project goals get preference over individual interests, Resource allotment and project scheduling is quite easy, Team specialization in the company gets facilitated, Employees show full dedication to the allotted project, Customer responsiveness is quite high, Company is flexible and agile to adapt to market needs, Project deadlines get adhered to quite easily
Disadvantages: There can be confusion about the relationships between project manager and functional specialists, Team members may find the coordination complex and difficult to maintain, There may be duplication of efforts, High probability of conflicts between project manager and functional specialist, Team members may feel insure about job security, Over specialization may increase project complexity beyond its scope, Employees may not remain loyal to one team, There can be adjustment issues faced by employees, This team alignment can prove costly for the company, Project closure may be a complex and time consuming process
Given that a project manager has the following ways to deal with conflict (Confronting, Compromise, Withdrawal, Smoothing, and Forcing) Describe why and how to use each technique, and the expected outcome of the conflict resolution.
A PM practices confronting by addressing issues in a straight forward manner. It may be appropriate when a decision must be made quickly. The technique functions under the premise handling potential problems early helps bring success. The communication is clear to prevent persistent conflict. The PM is particularly ethical and ultimately decides on the outcome based upon the raw facts and principles. It could end up being a win-lose situation; however, all parties have closure.
A PM exhibits compromise so all parties can agree upon the same outcome even though neither party walks away with complete satisfaction. It’s a win-win outcome, and everybody can live with it. You might employ a compromise when the potential benefits of trying to develop a win–win solution are exceeded by the costs. This framework helps us to recognize that there are alternative strategies that can be utilized to resolve conflicts.
The technique entails the PM swerving around the problems just hoping the parties involved can independently handle it or the issues are going to fade as time goes on. The outcome is a lose-lose situation. Withdrawal is applied when the issue is not that important or you deem the detrimental effects from the conflict outweigh the benefits of resolving the issue.
Smoothing entails the PM searching for aspects of the problem all the parties can agree upon and crafts a solution based upon those elements to reach a win-win outcome. It is used so that all parties feel acknowledged and so the same conflict does not arise again in the future.
Forcing involves the PM not being open while conducting activity his or her own way and completely orchestrates the resolution. The PM uses forcing for the purpose of controlling a specific outcome. However, it’s a lose-lose as all parties involved feel at a loss which may result in the issue arising again at a later time down the road. It may even impact entire relationship dynamics of involved parties in the future.
Any well written project plan should have several sections for the benefit of all stakeholders. Describe at least 5 sections and what is generally contained in those sections.
Schedules: The master schedule will be derived from the individual schedules for resources. Milestones will be used to indicate significant events in the project’s lifecycle.
Resources: The project’s budget will document both capital expenses and operating expenses by task. The procedures for cost monitoring and control will also be described.
Personnel: This section covers the types and quantities of human resources needed to complete the project. It should document unique requirements related to issues such as security clearances, skill sets, EOE/AA, and local content issues related to hiring and ownership practices.
Risk Management Plans: This section describes how uncertainty will be managed in the project. Its intent is to identify opportunities to capture and threats to respond to. Contingency plans will be developed to respond to important risk events should they arise during the project’s lifecycle
Evaluation Methods: This section describes the monitoring and control procedures that will be used to run the project and to assess its success.
What should you do as the project manager when something unexpected happens that you believe might be a serious threat to the project’s final success?
Mitigate the threat to soften its danger, either through reducing the likelihood it will occur or through reducing its impact if it does occur. Ways to reduce the likelihood are to do research or testing to improve understanding of the probability elements of the threat and then spend some effort on reducing more probable threats. For reducing the impact, the PM can provide backup resources, authorize parallel efforts, and other such approaches.
Do not accept the threat because it is a threat critical to the project’s final success. Instead, the PM should create a contingency plan so that if the threat does arise, everyone knows what actions will be taken to handle the threat. This might take the form of additional monetary or human resources, but the conditions for invoking the plan should be decided in advance so there is no confusion about whether the plan should be invoked.
When something unexpected happens that might be a serious threat, do not ignore the situation. It is important for a PM to be able to adjust which may involve establishing new project baselines so the handling of all proximal events account for the unexpected event that happened. The earlier the response to a developing risk, the less disruption occurs.
Eliminating the threat entirely may be accomplished by using alternative resources or adding contingent resources. For example, if the threat is cost-overrun, up-front de-scoping of project objectives in agreement with the client might tackle the threat.
Why is understanding the “Risks” involved in executing a project so important to the success of the project? Describe the qualitative aspects of risk management.
It is important because a sensible project selection decision cannot be made without knowledge of the risks associated with the project. Understanding the “risks” involved helps a project manager be proactive in mitigating future problems. Some qualitative aspects of risk management are customer satisfaction, meetings requirements and objectives, and project value. The human factor is the major element in risk management. The risk attitudes of stakeholders is influenced by their risk appetite, tolerance and threshold.
Why is project management no place for the timid?
It is no place for the timid because communication is important. A PM needs to enjoy practicing the arts of conflict resolution. Risk and conflict avoiders do not make happy PMs. Those who can stomach the risks, which is needed in project management, are typically adventurers rather than shy people.
Name at least five (5) skills or characteristics that should be considered in the selection of a project manager, and explain why these skills are important for the project manager to have to achieve project success.
Prepared- being proactive helps manage conflict
Personable- fulfill the staff’s needs, get to know the client and maintain healthy communication
Organized- needs to make sure facilities and supplies are available when needed.
Be Adaptable- must effectively handle people being added to the project, as well as plans and schedules being refined.
Skilled at synthesis- functional departments do detailed tasks. However, a PM needs to put many pieces of tasks together to form a coherent whole.
The triple constraints of a project are Cost, Scope, and Time of performance. Describe the interdependency of one to the other, and explain why each is important to the project’s success. Consider quality of performance, and customer satisfaction to explain the project manager’s trade off of the triple constraints.
Any actions taken to deal with parts of the total project impact other parts of the system. For example, a project manager may set a due date and budget without enough information to do so and then ends up having to de-scope the deliverables in order to meet those limits. On the other hand, when scope takes precedent at the beginning of a life cycle to improve quality of performance, it can delay the schedule and pushes up the costs. The customer may be upset if the budget needs to be unexpectedly increased. Typically, if a project manager takes a risk by increasing scope at no additional cost, then time is compromised. Paying for resources to increase efficiency would add to the project’s cost but save time.
Discuss the advantages obtained from resource leveling.
Resource leveling aims to minimize the period-by-period variations in resource loading by shifting tasks within their slack allowances. Much less hands-on management is required if the use of a given resource is nearly constant over its period of use. The PM does not worry the quantity delivered will be wrong. If the resource being leveled is people, leveling improves morale and results in fewer problems in the personnel and payroll offices.
As the project manager you decide to hold a kick off meeting (this is your first meeting with the entire project team). What do you expect to accomplish at the meeting? How do you prepare for the meeting in order for the outcome to be as you intend? How do you, in general terms, conduct, i.e. run the meeting? In addition to your team members who else would you invite to the kick off meeting and why?
At the kick off meeting, I expect to develop understanding of the sponsor’s main objectives of the project. That said, I would invite the sponsor so he or she can explicitly communicate needs to the staff. The functional managers and their staff members would also be present so we can all have the same understanding of the overall project goals. Teeing up a meaty topic for everyone to get involved with harnesses the collective wisdom of your team, creates a culture of collaboration and teamwork, and can be energizing. The topic has to be something that affects the entire team. The purpose of the kickoff meeting is to create a venue for team members to bond with one another and see the sponsor, PM and functional manager excitement for the project in person. I would also make sure the content is such that could not otherwise have been shared via email. Additionally, I would set up a taco spread for everyone.
Preparing for the meeting ahead of time will help not be rushed during the meeting. I would make sure that the meeting does not require anyone to be on the hot seat to bring goals onto the floor. It should be clear this meeting is not a substitute for a regular one-on-one meeting. At the same time, I am going to make sure we are not trying to cram too much into the meeting. I would make sure I allow enough time for the meeting. So, I would schedule it to be 2 hours. The first twenty minutes will be set aside for greetings. Then, the sponsor will present for half an hour. The PM will present for ten minutes. Each of the 6 functional managers will present for 5 minutes and there will be 30 minutes devoted to questions and enjoying the space together. In order to put time limits on team member information sharing at the meeting, I would ask everybody to hold their questions and comments in until the end, as well as keep their responses less than 2 minutes long. That said, the meeting allows for a controlled time for the project’s key details to be released to the staff so everybody receives the information at the same time and everybody has the opportunity to hear it, ask questions and discuss implications. Finally, I will not be late to the meeting so I am respecting everyone.
You are the project manager of a very important project to the company. Its success could mean that the company’s share of the market is doubled and its security in the marketplace is greatly enhanced. The project is developing new technology to be marketed; consequently the project is organized as a “Strong Matrix” with the assignment of a technical expert from a functional division to support you. The expert is assigned full time to your project team. During team meeting, the expert seems to generate disagreement with you as the project manager in the presence of the project team. The technical expert is well respected by the team members, but your job of managing the project and meeting the company’s expectations for success are becoming more difficult to handle with each passing day. You’re concerned that the team members may lose their focus on the project objectives because of the constant disagreements that the expert raises with regard to your direction to your project team members. Recall that “expert power” can be very influential, but you are the project manager with “positional” power. Obviously a conflict of power exists. Conflict resolution is called for. You also have “referent power”, in that upper management has specifically selected you to manage the project because of your previous successes with projects for the company. This is a real life situation that involves many PM who are generalists. What would you do? What are your alternatives?
At the beginning, a generalist can totally manage a team of specialists effectively. If the PM is appointed prior to project selection or if the PM originated the project, several of the usual start-up tasks are simplified. The PM’s first set of tasks is typically to prepare a preliminary budget and schedule, to help select people to serve on the project team, to get to know the client (either internal or external), to make sure that the proper facilities are available, and to ensure that any supplies required early in the project life are available when needed. Usually, a senior manager briefs the PM on the project so that the PM can understand where it fits in the general scheme of things in the parent organization, its priority relative to other projects in the system and the routine work of the organization.
Further, the PM communicates with top management, also known as functional managers, of each team. Since the PM has the functional managers as specialist leaders, it can manage the specialists effectively by managing the functional managers. The PM needs to be more skilled at synthesis, whereas the functional manager should be more skilled at analysis. While the functional manager is needed as a direct, technical supervisor, a project cannot succeed without the large-scale management facilitating each department working together.
A generalist is needed to effectively manage a team of specialists. However, as work begins, it is required for the PM to also have specialized knowledge. The PM should be competent in the science of project management. The PM also needs to have a reasonably high level of technical competence in the science of the project
A few concerns still do exist with a generalist managing a team of specialists. In the case project team members are strongly oriented toward their individual, functional disciplines and put their own goals in front of the entire project’s wellness, success is threatened. If the team members are adaptable in solving problems impacting the overall project goal, instead of super focused on only their own discipline, success is propelled. Most importantly, there is a separation of powers between the functional leaders and PM. The PM is responsible for organizing, staffing, budgeting, directing, planning and controlling the project. However, the functional managers may affect the choice of technology to be used and the specific individuals who will do the work. Still, the PM cannot allow the functional manager to take control of the project. If control is transferred, the fulfillment of the project’s purpose is likely to fall secondary to the work of the single, functional group. At the same time, the functional manager cannot allow the PM to take over the authority for technical decisions in the functional area or to control the assignment of function area personnel. Therefore, the PM and functional managers must effectively listen to each other to together conduct the optimal solutions that are aligned with achieving the overall project’s goal.
Approaching a situation assertively and being unwilling to cooperate is referred to as a “competing” strategy. When a competing strategy is employed, the person is viewing the situation as though someone must lose in order for the other to win, or, in this case, I win and you lose (win–lose). It is not smart for the project manager to have a competing strategy in this scenario. Successful project management requires that when conflict arises, the situation is carefully evaluated and the approach for managing the conflict is proactively chosen in a way that best enhances the quality of the relationship between the parties.
Listen: Listening skills hold a crucial importance while leading any project. It is a tool which can resolve many conflicts without much effort. You just have to listen to the concerned person. In this scenario I, as a responsible project manager, will listen to the expert and would like to know the reason for his /her disagreement with me. This will give me an insight about his/her thinking process and I will be able to analyze the situation in a much better way.
Acknowledge: It is very much important to acknowledge people for their ideas and advices as most of the times the reason for conflict is the non- acknowledgement by the superiors. In the current case, I will acknowledge anything which an expert brings on the table and will value his/her advice. The suggestions made by the expert will be given due consideration if they are found beneficial for the project.
Still, in situations where you do not assert your position and focus more on cooperating with the other party, you are employing an “accommodating” strategy. In this case, the focus is on resolving the issue from the other person’s point of view.
Here the situation can be described as I lose, you win, or lose–win. It would be appropriate to employ the accommodating strategy when you were wrong or the issue is much more important to the other person, which is not the case in this scenario. Therefore, I would make sure I was not simply accommodating the expert.
Alternatively, when you assertively state your position but do so in a spirit of cooperation, you are employing a “collaborating” strategy. Here your focus is on achieving your goals but with the recognition that the best solution is one that benefits both parties. Thus, the collaborating strategy can be considered a win–win strategy. This is the preferred strategy in most situations and particularly in situations where the needs of both parties are important.
Practice Principled Negotiation: Negotiating to a win-win solution is the key to conflict resolution. Principled negotiation is defined by four points. It separates the people from the problem. It focuses on interests, not positions. Before trying to reach agreement, the PM invents options for mutual gain. It also insists on using objective criteria. Rather than bargaining on positions, attention should be given to finding standards that can be used to determine the quality of a certain outcome.
Separate the people from the problem: The conflicting parties are often highly emotional. They perceive things differently and feel strongly about the differences. Emotions and objective fact get confused to the point where it is not clear which is which. Conflicting parties tend to attack one another rather than the problem. To minimize the likelihood that the conflict will become strictly interpersonal, the substantive problem should be carefully defined. Then everyone can work on it rather than each other.
Focus on interests, not positions: A simple “Let’s talk about this” would be sufficient to open the discussion. Otherwise, each party develops a high level of ego involvement in his or her position and the negotiation never focuses on the real interests and concerns of the conflicting parties—the central issues of the conflict. The exchange deteriorates into a series of positional compromises that do not satisfy either party and leave both feeling that they have lost something important. When negotiation focuses on interests, the negotiator must determine the underlying concern of the other party. Knowledge of the other party’s interests allows a negotiator to suggest solutions that satisfy the other party’s interests without agreeing with the other’s position.
Before trying to reach agreement, invent options for mutual gain: The parties-in-conflict usually enter negotiations knowing the outcome they would like. As a result, they are blind to other outcomes and are not particularly creative. Nonetheless, as soon as the substantive problems are spelled out, some effort should be devoted to finding a wide variety of possible solutions—or elements thereof—that advance the mutual interests of the conflicting parties. Success at finding options that produce mutual gain positively reinforces win–win negotiations.
Insist on using objective criteria: Rather than bargaining on positions, attention should be given to finding standards (e.g., market value, expert opinion, law, company policy) that can be used to determine the quality of an outcome. Doing this tends to make the negotiation less a contest of wills or exercise in stubbornness. If a functional manager wants to use an expensive process to test a part, it is acceptable for the PM to ask if such a process is required to ensure that the parts meet specified quality standards. I would also inform the program manager, and any other useful upper management, about the situation to help me ensure the overall project’s goals are being prioritized above the departmental goals.
Two projects are being considered for selection. Project A will cost $300,000 to implement and is expected to have annual net cash inflow of $50,000. Project B will cost $1,200,000 to implement and should generate annual net cash inflow of $200,000. The company is very concerned about their cash flow. Project B is using new technology that should give the company a market advantage if successful, whereas Project A is using proven technologies. Using the Pay Back method of project selection, which project is the better selection, given the information above? Show your calculations, and explain your reason for selecting project A or B.
A: 300,000/50,000= 6 years B: 1,200,000/200,000=6 years
Project A and B have the same payback period.
The payback period for a project is the initial fixed investment in the project divided by the estimated annual net cash inflows from the project. The ratio of these quantities is the number of years required for the project to repay its initial fixed investment. This method assumes that the cash inflows will persist at least long enough to pay back the investment, and it ignores any cash inflows beyond the payback period. This method also serves as a proxy for risk. The faster the investment is recovered, the less the risk to which the firm is exposed. With the payback period method, there is still uncertainty about the timing of the project and the cash flows it is expected to generate. There may be uncertainty about the direct outcomes of the project. There is uncertainty about the side effects of the project and its unforeseen consequences.
The textbook mentions the benefit of a firm positioning itself to capitalize on future opportunities. Since Project B is using new technology that should give the company an advantage if successful, it is tempting to select Project B. Also, the opportunity cost of not selecting Project B is difficult to bear. Still, the firm is very concerned about their cash flows. So, it makes sense to select the non-risky option.
Since Project A is using proven technologies, I would select it to bring certainty to the situation. The firm cannot risk a new technology being unsuccessful and then taking a longer time for the investment to be recovered. At least a proven technology contains some prediction about the cash flows it is expected to generate. There are many side effects and unforeseen consequences to using new technology.
You are the project manager on site at a location across the country from your corporate office. Your boss calls during the implementation phase of your project and asked you for a “Project Status’ report over the phone. Your boss is in a hurry and wants a brief answer to report to the company’s Board of Directors.
In as few as words as possible, what would you say to the boss to give him/her the project status?
Below is a Project Status report for Project #1 I would be referencing during my phone call. I would say: All tasks up to and including the scheduling of manufacturing are complete. We are working on the tools, jigs and fixtures to be designed so we can then get them delivered. From there, we still have to start production and then do the product test and marketing sign-off on product.
Prepare a WBS outline given the following information: A real estate developer has asked an environmental consultant to assess the potential environmental risk associated with an industrial property, and if necessary, estimate the cost to remediate (clean up) the site. In order to develop a better working relationship with the developer, the consultant decided to outline the entire process for the developer. The process begins with a property background review, called phase 1.0 that consists of a review of historical aerial photographs obtained from regional planning agencies, utilities, and historical societies; a site walkthrough, interviews with current and previous occupants, and a review of pertinent local, state, and federal records. The Phase 1.0 does not include soil or building material samples. If the results of the Phase 1.0 indicate that there is significant environmental risk associated with the property, then a Phase 2.0 investigation of activities must be performed. The Phase 2.0 begins with the preparation of a work plan that includes the areas and materials to be sampled based on the results of the Phase 1.0 study. After approval of the work plan by the customer and regulatory authorities, field activities are performed in Phase 2.0. Data from the Phase 2.0 investigation is analyzed, and if it is determined to be sufficient to define the extent of the contamination, a report will be prepared for regulatory review. If the results of Phase 2.0 indicate that remediation (clean up ) is necessary, the following steps will be taken: an assessment of remedial alternatives will be done, the preparation of a remedial action plan (RAP) will be done, a RAP review and approval by the regulatory agency will follow, then the implementation of the RAP will be undertaken. Prepare a work breakdown structure (WBS) for this project. The WBS only needs to have one sub-level in its hierarchy. Prepare the WBS with the number of the WBS elements showing the indentation of the WBS outline so that the level of each activity is clearly identified and the lower levels can be rolled up to aggregate with its upper tier WBS element.
1.0 Property background review
a. Review historical aerial photographs
1. Regional planning agency photographs obtained
2. Utilities photographs obtained
3. Historical societies photographs obtained
b. Complete site walkthrough
c. Complete interviews
1. Current occupants interviewed 2. Previous occupants interviewed
d. Review records
1. Local records reviewed
2. State records reviewed
3. Federal records reviewed
2.0 Investigation of Activities
a. Prepare work plan
1. Areas to be sampled determined
2. Materials to be sampled determined
b. Obtain approval of work plan from customer and regulatory authorities
c. Perform field activities
3.0 Analysis of data from the investigation of activities
a. Sufficiency to define the extent of contamination determined
b. Report for regulatory review prepared
4.0 Implementation of the RAP
a. Remedial alternatives assessed
b. Remedial action plan (RAP) prepared
c. RAP reviewed and approved
d. RAP implemented