The peer-reviewed sources I selected inform a conversation about traditional ecological knowledge’s potential to support restoration ecology at the Klamath River. Two of the research studies provide the scientific background needed to understand the problems interfering with the river operating at its maximum potential in terms of sustaining life. Further, the next project explains the indigenous philosophy underlying land management practices. Another study investigates negotiations between the U.S. Forest Service and Karuk Tribe to examine potential gateways for indigenous people to successfully implement traditional ecological knowledge. Finally, I selected a literature review to emphasize the importance of collaboration in the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) model, commonly implemented in water policy and administration. Together, the sources thoroughly address the area’s ecological issues, illustrate a philosophical view applicable to combating the problems, depict interaction the indigenous people have with governing groups, and reveal opportunity to enhance strategy.
The article “Impact of seasonality and anthropogenic impoundments on dissolved organic matter dynamics in the Klamath River” discusses disturbances impacting the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the resulting effect on the entire ecosystem. The study examined how human impoundments and flow regulation impact DOM quality and quantity throughout various seasons. The authors then evaluate the results in terms of the dam removal debate which is particularly relevant to indigenous people in the region. The life force contained in a water’s current is an essential principle within the traditional ecological knowledge framework. Understanding the contaminants and various factors contributing to hydrologic regulation reveals the fundamental characteristics of the space.
The study “Density of the Waterborne Parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta and Its Biological Effects on Salmon” goes one step further to explain how the river’s components threaten wildlife. The researchers focus on two salmon populations: Chinook and Coho. The authors carried out a 5-year monitoring program to measure water samples across 212 kilometers and detect disease severity in fish. Direct quantification of the density of host-specific parasite genotypes in water samples offers a tool for predicting the rate at which salmon are dying. Understanding the problem’s degree communicates the environmental degradation issue before proceeding to discuss traditional ecological knowledge’s role in the matter.
The article “The river is us; the river is in our veins: re-defining river restoration in three Indigenous communities” illustrates indigenous communities are involved in river restoration to engage with the water body as a sacred entity. The authors conducted research with representatives from three indigenous groups in Canada, the United States and New Zealand. The study explores indigenous ways of knowing, as well as the way spiritual practices are intertwined with restoration methods. The authors show having a cultural approach to restoration empowers communities as it strengthens human relationships with rivers and creates space for decentralizing river governance.
In “Co-management as a Catalyst: Pathways to Post-colonial Forestry in the Klamath Basin, California,” the authors investigate how the framework enables indigenous communities to address self-determination goals. Through a five-year case study of co-management negotiations involving the Karuk Tribe and the U.S. Forest Service, the authors examines how Indigenous communities use co-management to build greater equity in environmental decision-making. Methods included semi-structured interviews with key informants, participant observation, and document analysis. The authors describe how Indigenous communities are simultaneously following existing state policies and subverting them to shift federal forest management. The article is particularly pertinent to my research project as it shows how indigenous people can still support restoration ecology even amidst bureaucratic challenges. The literature review “Integrated Water Resources Management and Collaboration: The Failure of the Klamath River Agreements” identifies the range of stakeholders involved in the Klamath River water governance conflict. While the parties crafted settlements to resolve the significant issues, Congress did not approve them. The article makes recommendations for refining the IWRM model based on the series of events. The authors provide political background and are going to guide my suggestions for further restoration strategy improvements.
Mccool, Daniel. 2018. “Integrated Water Resources Management and Collaboration: The Failure of the Klamath River Agreements”. Journal of Policy and History. Vol.30(1), pp.83-104.
Diver, Sibyl. 2016. “Co-management as a Catalyst: Pathways to Post-colonial Forestry in the Klamath Basin, California”. Journal of Human Ecology. Vol.44(5), pp.533-546.
Fox, Coleen, Nicholas Reo, Dale Turner, JoAnne Cook, Frank Dituri, Brett Fessell, James Jenkins, Aimee Johnson, Terina Rakena, Chris Riley, Ashleigh Turner, Julian Willians, Mark Wilson. 2017. “The river is us; the river is in our veins: re-defining river restoration in three Indigenous communities”. Journal of Sustainability Science. Vol.12(4), pp. 521-533.
Hallett, Sascha, Adam Ray, Charlene Hurst, Richard Holt, Gerri Buckles, Stephen Atkinson, Jerri Bartholomew. 2012. “Density of the waterborne parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta and its biological effects on salmon”. Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Vol. 78(10), pp. 3724-3731.
Oliver, Allison, Robert Spencer, Michael Deas and Randy Dahlgren. 2016. “Impact of seasonality and anthropogenic impoundments on dissolved organic matter dynamics in the Klamath River”. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. Vol.121(7), pp. 1946-1958.